Tarpan horse, or European wild horse (Equus ferus), is now considered the most likely candidate for the ancestral title of all modern horses. The last wild tarpan died in captivity in 1917 or 1918. The last of the wild herds was killed in the mid-19th century by farmers tired of wild horses stealing their domestic mares and eating their crops.
Tarpans once ranged from northern Germany to Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine, and western Russia. Horse tarpan was said to closely resemble przewalskii, except for a gray coat. After extinction, efforts were made to recreate the breed, and while the modern tarpan bears a strong physical resemblance to its ancient ancestor, it can no longer be considered pure.
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The original tarpan is an extinct subspecies of horse whose scientific name is Tarpan. Horse tarpan developed during the ice age as a subspecies of Equus ferus, which lived all over the land from Western Europe to Alaska, as well as parts of Eastern Europe and the Eurasian steppe. Also known as the wild horses of Eurasia, it is believed that the Tarpans were domesticated in Russia around 3000 BC. C.
🍎Origin of the Tarpán Horse
Being one of the four founding races of modern horses, it can only be said that the origin of tarpan comes from the ancient Equus that moved from America to Europe and Asia during the Ice Age era. It was hunted throughout history and meat was considered a food in the 18th century.
Although its influence on the modern horse is much debated, there is strong evidence that many European and Russian breeds developed from domesticated tarpaulins. Tarpan horse, some believe they are the ancestors of all modern horses.
As Europe’s human population grew and agriculture and farming became the typical means of survival, tarpan habitat gradually declined. They were also hunted, both as a source of food and to prevent them from competing with domesticated livestock for food and water.
Tarpans were also known to damage crops and steal and cross with domesticated mares, resulting in unwanted foals. Crossbreeding was another major reason why the tarpan became extinct: in the 19th century, when the Tarpans were on the verge of extinction, it is likely that most of the remaining specimens were hybrids.
The last wild tarpan herds were killed in the mid-19th century by farmers who considered them pests. Tarpan horse, a small number existed in captivity, and the last specimen (seen in the photograph above) died in Russia in 1909.
📌Characteristics Cavall Tarpán
The tarpan was about 12-13 hands tall and was typically mouse gray, with a pale underside, a dorsal stripe, dark legs, and short, dark, curly hair. The tarpan had small ears, a large, thick head, and a strong, compact body.
The head is long and wide with a straight or convex profile, the ears are long, pointed and fall slightly towards the eyes, the eyes are small and round, the neck is thick and short, the back is long and straight, the shoulder is sloping and long, legs are long and thin, but strong joints, always a dune tone with primitive marks.
Most relevant features
Quiet, friendly and curious
Independent and stubborn
Smart and stubborn
Taxonomy of the Tarpán Horse
Horses were previously assigned to 2 different species, Equus caballus and E. przewalskii. In 1986 and 1994, Colin Groves, 1 leading taxonomist, proposed using E caballus for all domestic horses and E. ferus for 2 wild horses:
I ferus przewalskii = Przewalski’s horse
I ferus ferus = tarpan (extinct in nature around 1897)
Przewalski’s Horse has 66 chromosomes, Equus caballus has 64; the cross results in fertile offspring with 65 chromosomes.
Note: It is a popular misconception that different species cannot cross. Species are not bred under natural conditions.)
Horses separated from rhinos 54 and 58 million years ago (early Eocene) (Ryder 2009)
The lineages of horses are called hippomorphs; Tapirs and rhinos are ceratomorphs.
It is likely that horses first dispersed from Europe to North America in the early Eocene (Hooker 2008)
Pliolophus is now considered the first horse; is closely related to Hyracotherium of North America (Froehlich 2002) (Hooker 2008)
Pliolophus had four hooves on the front limbs, three on the back, with short legs and was half the size of a fox terrier (Hooker 2008) (Agusti and Anton 2005)
The horse family, Equidae, has three main divisions based on anatomy and DNA studies (Oakenfull et al. 2000)
Horses: include domestic horses and Equus przewalskii, a wild ancestor (Forstén 1988)
Donkeys include domestic donkeys, African wild donkeys and hemionines (onager and Asian kiang)
The genus Equus probably originated 4.0-4.5 million years ago (Orlando et al. 2013).
♣ Scientific name
Equus caballus caballus
Tarpan, a European wild horse that survived in small herds in remote parts of Central Europe during the Middle Ages, but became extinct in the early 20th century. Late survivors are likely to have crossed domesticated horses. The Munich Zoo produced a tarpan-like horse through the selective breeding of domestic horses that are known to have tarpan ancestry. These specimens are exhibited in zoos in the United States and Europe. They are small brown horses with flowing manes and tails.
🐴Horse Tarpan horse
Most domesticated horses require regular helmet care to stay healthy. Wild horses (like Przewalski’s horses) grow like domestic horses. They can pass without regular helmet care because they are not used in the same way as domestic horses and they can choose the floor they cover. There are horses with a bad foot in nature.
Only not for long. Horses with limb deviations, foot deformities, and hoof diseases are vulnerable to natural predators. Horses in captivity have the luxury of being cared for with excellent nutrition and veterinary medicine. Horses with foot problems are much more likely to have a quality life in captivity, when a competent farrier manufactures and applies therapeutic shoes. Farmers have the privilege of working with these great animals every day and helping them improve their lives.
“What Cavall Tarpán eats.”
All horses are herbivores, which means they eat plants. Although they eat a wide variety, this subspecies usually feeds on one type of plant at a time and changes its preference as the seasons change and different plants become more frequent, some of their favorite types of food. they are rushes, pastures, pastures, pulses, and flowering plants.
They require a lot of space to exercise and grazing to eat can also provide them with commercially produced granular food, it is important to note that placing a lot of fresh water to drink.
These horse breeds are social and live in groups. They spend their days looking for food and their nights sleeping. Herds usually contain two or three females and a single stallion. Their young remain with the herd until they are about two or three years old.
Watch the tarpan horse race in this video: